As a highly developed social theory, Communism holds that children represented the power of the future and should be afforded the best possible care and education. Mothers were considered “laborers” and were entitled to benefits as any worker would be.
In the interest of protecting both children and mothers, Soviet Russia organized a system of “crèches,” essentially daycares, where mothers could leave their children while they worked and where children could be molded into the proletariat of the future. The crèche accommodated children ranging from one month to three years and proved to be a means of fighting disease and decreasing child mortality, as children were exposed daily to exercise, food, social interaction, and medical examinations. A crèche was typically connected to a factory and working mothers would be organized into work groups that would coincide with their child’s crèche attendance. The crèche essentially removed the burden of motherhood for a brief time each day and was state sanctioned as a benefit to both mother and child.
Children were often the subjects of intense scientific research. With the Communist regime erasing traditions affiliated with Imperial Russia, there were virtually no social traditions to hinder Soviet science regarding children and the family.